What does a horizontal line represent in a pedigree?

A horizontal line connecting a male and female represents a marriage. A vertical line and a bracket connect the parents to their children. A half-shaded circle or square indicates that a person is a carrier of the trait. A completely shaded circle or square indicates that a person expresses the trait.

What do lines represent on a pedigree?

A dashed offspring line indicates the individual was adopted into the family, and a solid line indicates the individual was adopted out of the family.

What does a horizontal line represent in biology?

Shading implies that a particular individual has the trait that is being studied in the pedigree. A diagonal line through an individual means that family member is deceased. A horizontal line connecting two individuals indicates a mating, and the parallel branched line below the couple indicates their offspring.

What does the vertical line represent in the pedigree chart?

The pedigree chart displays the lines of descent among close natural relatives. Females are represented by circle, males by squares and if the sex is unknown a diamond is used. The same but smaller symbols or by a vertical or slanted line indicates abortion or still birth over the symbol.

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What does a horizontal line between a square and a circle mean?

The horizontal line that connects a circle and a square represents a marriage.

What does double line mean in pedigree?

Double lines in pedigree analysis represent mating between relatives, i.e., consanguineous mating. Normal mating is shown by single line. Symbol “◊ ” represents sex unspecified. Unaffected offspring are depicted by open and clear symbols (i.e., ◻ for male and O for female).

Which line is horizontal?

A horizontal line is one which runs left-to-right across the page. In geometry, a horizontal line is one which runs from left to right across the page. It comes from the word ‘horizon’, in the sense that horizontal lines are parallel to the horizon. Its cousin is the vertical line which runs up and down the page.

How do you draw divorce on a pedigree?

If your biological parents are divorced or not together, draw a diagonal line through the horizontal line. If either of your parents have children with a different partner, draw a second relationship line to the other partner.

What does a vertical line represent?

A vertical line is one the goes straight up and down, parallel to the y-axis of the coordinate plane. All points on the line will have the same x-coordinate. In the figure above, drag either point and note that the line is vertical when they both have the same x-coordinate. A vertical line has no slope.

What is proband in pedigree?

A proband is an individual being studied or reported on. A proband is usually the first affected individual in a family who brings a genetic disorder to the attention of the medical community.

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Is PP genotype or phenotype?

There are three available genotypes, PP (homozygous dominant ), Pp (heterozygous), and pp (homozygous recessive). All three have different genotypes but the first two have the same phenotype (purple) as distinct from the third (white).

What do the symbols square and circle in a pedigree chart indicate?

In a pedigree chart squares represent the males and circles represent the females.