What do the symbols on a pedigree chart mean?
A pedigree is a chart of the genetic history of a family over several generations. Males are represented as squares, while females are represented as circles. Shaded symbols mean an individual is affected by a condition, while an unshaded symbol means they are unaffected.
What do arrows mean in pedigree?
Pedigrees are often constructed after a family member afflicted with a genetic disorder has been identified. This individual, known as the proband, is indicated on the pedigree by an arrow. These changes may occur yearly or monthly.
What is a diamond in a pedigree?
A pedigree, also known as a genogram, is a diagram that depicts individuals who are related by blood or another factor. … For example, a square icon indicates a male individual, a circle icon indicates a female individual, and a diamond icon indicates an individual of unknown/undetermined gender.
What is family pedigree?
A pedigree shows relationships between family members and indicates which individuals have certain genetic pathogenic variants, traits, and diseases within a family as well as vital status. A pedigree can be used to determine disease inheritance patterns within a family. Enlarge.
What do the circles and squares mean on a pedigree?
A circle represents a female. A square represents a male. A horizontal line connecting a male and female represents a marriage.
How do you number a pedigree chart?
The standard pedigree chart always begins with you, or the individual whose ancestry you are tracing, on the first line — number 1 on the chart. Information on your father (or ancestor #1’s father) is entered as number 2 on the chart, while your mother is number 3.
What is proband in pedigree?
A proband is an individual being studied or reported on. A proband is usually the first affected individual in a family who brings a genetic disorder to the attention of the medical community.
What does triangle mean on pedigree?
A triangle is used for any pregnancy not carried to term. Include gestational age, or estimated date of delivery (EDD) for all pregnancies. Pregnancy (P), Stillbirth (SB), Spontaneous abortion (SAB), Termination of pregnancy (TOP), Ectopic pregnancy (ECT).
What does a double line on a pedigree mean?
Consanguinious matings are those between related individuals (those that share a common ancestor), and are indicated by double lines between pedigree symbols. … The offspring of a consanguinious mating are said to be inbred.
What does a diagonal line in a pedigree mean?
Here is a pedigree. Females are circles. … A diagonal line through a circle or square means the person has died.
Which pedigree symbol represents a female carrier?
A male is represented by a square or the symbol ♂, a female by a circle or the symbol ♀.
What does an open circle represent?
A closed circle indicates “greater than or equal to” or “less than or equal to,” while and open circle indicates “greater than” or “less than”.