What do the horizontal lines and vertical lines represent in the pedigree chart?

Horizontal lines connect the parents and if the parents are close relatives, the line is doubled. The progeny is connected to the parental line with a vertical line and the subsequent generations are marked by Roman numerals at the left side of the chart, I (parents), II children, (III (grandchildren), and so on.

What does a horizontal line mean on a pedigree chart?

A horizontal line connecting a male and female represents a marriage. A vertical line and a bracket connect the parents to their children. A half-shaded circle or square indicates that a person is a carrier of the trait. A completely shaded circle or square indicates that a person expresses the trait.

What do horizontal and vertical lines represent?

Horizontal and vertical are two special cases of linear relationships. Horizontal lines are lines that run directly from left to right and are parallel to the x-axis. Vertical lines are lines that run directly up and down and are parallel to the y-axis.

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What does the horizontal line at the end of a vertical line represent in a pedigree?

In a pedigree, a circle represents a female, and a square represents a male. … The horizontal line that connects a circle and a square represents a marriage. The vertical line(s) and brackets below that line show the child(ren) of that couple.

What is the relationship between vertical and horizontal lines?

Horizontal and vertical are two special cases of linear relationships. Horizontal lines are lines that run directly from left to right and are parallel to the x-axis. Vertical lines are lines that run directly up and down and are parallel to the y-axis.

What does a vertical line on a pedigree?

The pedigree chart displays the lines of descent among close natural relatives. Females are represented by circles, males by squares and if the sex is unknown a diamond (⋄) is used (see Fig. P37). The same but smaller symbols or by a vertical or slanted line indicates abortion or still birth over the symbol.

What does a vertical line on a pedigree mean?

Relationships in a pedigree are shown as a series of lines. Parents are connected by a horizontal line and a vertical line leads to their offspring. The offspring are connected by a horizontal sibship line and listed in birth order from left to right.

Are horizontal and vertical lines in a chart?

Summary of Horizontal and Vertical Lines

Horizontal lines go side to side and have a slope of 0. Vertical lines go up and down and have a slope that is undefined. Graphs of horizontal lines are parallel to the x-axis. Graphs of vertical lines are parallel to the y-axis.

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What is horizontal and vertical?

In geometry, we use the words vertical and horizontal for standing and sleeping respectively. … Anything parallel to the horizon is called horizontal. As vertical is the opposite of horizontal, anything that makes a 90-degree angle (right angle) with the horizontal or the horizon is called vertical.

What is the meaning of vertical lines?

Definition of vertical line

: a line perpendicular to a surface or to another line considered as a base: such as. a : a line perpendicular to the horizon. b : a line parallel to the sides of a page or sheet as distinguished from a horizontal line.

What does a horizontal line represent?

In more simple terms, a horizontal line on any chart is where the y-axis values are equal. If it has been drawn to show a series of highs in the data, a data point moving above the horizontal line would indicate a rise in the y-axis value over recent values in the data sample.

Are circles male or female?

In human genetics, pedigree diagrams are utilized to trace the inheritance of a specific trait, abnormality, or disease. A male is represented by a square or the symbol ♂, a female by a circle or the symbol ♀.

How do you draw twins on a pedigree?

Dizygotic Twins (non-identical) : Indicated by two diagonal vertical lines originating from the same point. Monozygotic twins (identical): Indicated by two diagonal vertical lines originating from the same point. No children: A vertical line with 2 hash marks at the end.

What equation represents a horizontal line?

Horizontal lines have a slope of 0. Thus, in the slope-intercept equation y = mx + b, m = 0. The equation becomes y = b, where b is the y-coordinate of the y-intercept.

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What is the slope of horizontal and vertical lines?

The slope of a line can be positive, negative, zero, or undefined. A horizontal line has slope zero since it does not rise vertically (i.e. y1 − y2 = 0), while a vertical line has undefined slope since it does not run horizontally (i.e. x1 − x2 = 0). because division by zero is an undefined operation.